Calculating Weights and Measures

Standard English Equivalents | Converting Between Standard English and Metric Units | Temperature | Healthy Substitutions

These guides can assist with abbreviations, conversions between Standard English and Metric measurements, identifying and converting unusual weights and measures, and substituting for ingredients that are high in fat and cholesterol.

Abbreviations

A list of common measurement units, both Standard English and Metric, and their abbreviations.

Standard English

  • cup = C
  • fluid cup = fl C
  • fluid ounce = fl oz.
  • fluid quart = fl qt.
  • foot = ft
  • gallon = gal
  • inch = in
  • ounce = oz
  • pint = pt
  • pound = lb
  • quart = qt
  • tablespoon = T or Tbsp
  • teaspoon = t or tsp
  • yard = yd

    Metric

  • millimeter = mm
  • centimeter = cm
  • meter = m
  • kilometer = km

  • milliliter = mL
  • liter = L

  • milligram = mg
  • gram = g
  • kilogram = kg

  • Standard English Equivalents

     

    Wet Measure

  • 1 tablespoon = 1/2 fluid ounce
  • 1 jigger = 1 1/2 fluid ounces (3 tablespoons)
  • 1 fluid cup = 8 fluid ounces
  • 1 fluid cup = 1/2 pint
  • 1 pint = 2 fluid cups
  • 1 quart = 4 fluid cups
  • 1 quart = 2 pints
  • 1 gallon = 128 fluid ounces
  • 1 gallon = 4 quarts
  • 1 peck = 8 quarts
  • 1 peck = 2 gallons
  • Dry Measure

  • 1 tablespoon = 3 teaspoons
  • 1/4 cup = 4 tablespoons
  • 1/3 cup = 5 1/3 tablespoons
  • 1/2 cup = 8 tablespoons
  • 2/3 cup = 10 2/3 tablespoons
  • 3/4 cup = 12 tablespoons
  • 1 cup = 16 tablespoons
  • 1 cup = 48 tablespoons
  • 1 pound = 16 ounces
  • 1 bushel = 4 pecks
  •  

    Converting Between Standard English and Metric Units

    Guides for converting Standard English to Metric and Metric to Standard English units, divided by weight, volume, temperature and distance.

    Weight

  • 1 ounce = 28.35 grams
  • 1 pound = 453.59 grams
  • 1 gram = 0.035 ounce
  • 100 grams = 3.5 ounces
  • 1000 grams = 2.2 pounds
  • 1 kilogram = 35 ounces
  • 1 kilogram = 2.2 pounds

    Volume

  • 1 milliliter = 1/5 teaspoon
  • 1 milliliter = 0.03 fluid ounce
  • 1 teaspoon = 5 milliliters
  • 1 tablespoon = 15 milliliters
  • 1 fluid ounce = 30 milliliters
  • 1 fluid cup = 236.6 milliliters
  • 1 quart = 946.4 milliliters
  • 1 liter (1000 milliliters) = 34 fluid ounces
  • 1 liter (1000 milliliters) = 4.2 cups
  • 1 liter (1000 milliliters) = 2.1 fluid pints
  • 1 liter (1000 milliliters) = 1.06 fluid quarts
  • 1 liter (1000 milliliters) = 0.26 gallon
  • 1 gallon = 3.8 liters
  •  

     

     

    Temperature

    Conversion Formulas:
    °C = (°F - 32) X 5/9
    °F = (°C X 9/5) + 32

  • 32°F = 0°C
  • 40°F = 4.4°C
  • 100°F = 37.7°C
  • 200°F = 93.3°C
  • 225°F = 107.2°C
  • 250°F = 121.1°C
  • 275°F = 135°C
  • 300°F = 148.9°C
  • 325°F = 162.8°C
  • 350°F = 176.7°C
  • 375°F = 190.6°C
  • 400°F = 204.4°C
  • 425°F = 218.3°C
  • 450°F = 232.2°C
  • 475°F = 246.1°C
  • 500°F = 260°C

    Distance

  • 1 inch= 2.5 centimeters
  • 1 foot = 30 centimeters
  • 1 millimeter = 0.04 inch
  • 1 centimeter = 0.4 inch
  • 1 meter = 3.3 feet

  •  

    Healthy Substitutions

    Sour Cream Substitutes

  • Plain low-fat yogurt
  • 1/2 cup cottage cheese blended with 1 1/2 tsp. lemon juice
  • Fat-free sour cream

    Whipped Cream Substitutes

  • Chilled, whipped evaporated skim milk
  • Nondairy whipped ping made from polyunsaturated fat

    Cream Substitutes

  • Evaporated skim milk

    Whole Milk (as a beverage or in recipes) substitutes

  • Skim, 1 percent or 2 percent milk

    Full-fat Cheese Substitutes

  • Low-fat, skim-milk cheese
  • Cheese made with less than 5 grams of fat per ounce
  • Fat-free cheese

    Ricotta Cheese Substitutes

  • Low-fat or fat-free cottage cheese
  • Non-fat or low-fat ricotta cheese

    Ice Cream Substitutes

  • Low-fat or nonfat ice cream
  • Frozen low-fat or nonfat yogurt
  • Frozen fruit juice products
  • Sorbet

    Ground Beef Substitutes

  • Extra lean ground beef
  • Lean ground turkey or chicken

    Bacon Substitutes

  • Canadian bacon
  • Lean ham

    Sausage Substitutes

  • Lean ground turkey
  • 95% fat-free sausage

    Whole Egg Substitutes

  • Two egg whites
  • 1/4 cup cholesterol-free liquid egg product
  • 1 egg white plus 2 tsp. oil
  • One egg yolk = one egg white
  • One egg (as thickener) = 1 tablespoon flour

    Mayonnaise Substitutes

  • Low-fat or fat-free mayonnaise
  • Whipped salad dressing
  • Plain low-fat yogurt combined with low-fat cottage cheese

    Salad Dressing Substitutes

  • Low-calorie commercial dressings
  • Homemade dressing made with unsaturated oils, water, and vinegar or lemon juice

    Cream Soup Substitutes

  • Defatted broths
  • Broth-based or skim milk-based soups

    Nut Substitutes

  • Dried fruit such as raisins, chopped dried apricots or dried cranberries

    Chocolate Substitutes

  • 1 ounce baking chocolate = 3 tablespoons cocoa powder and 1 tablespoon oil

    Butter, Lard, and Other Saturated Fat (coconut oil, palm oil) Substitutes

  • Soft tub margarine (first ingredient on food label, listed as liquid vegetable oil*
  • Corn, cottonseed olive grapeseed (canola) safflower, sesame, soybean, or sunflower oil.
  • * (When cooking, it is better not to substitute reduced-fat margarine or corn oil spreads for regular butter and margarine unless a recipe has been specifically developed for their use. Their increased water content can make a substantial difference in the food's taste, appearance and texture).


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